If it is not feasible to effectively undertake an impact evaluation, the Mission or Washington OU must conduct a performance evaluation and document why an impact evaluation wasn’t feasible. Baseline data are collected prior to program implementation for both treatment and comparison groups. U.S. Agency for International Development, Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference, Running Randomized Evaluations: A Practical Guide, decision to undertake and impact evaluation, Experimental and Quasi Experimental Design for Generalized Causal Inference. Students were assessed prior to the start of the intervention in April 2018 and again at the end of the intervention in July 2018. 2012 Report(link is external) Missions initially identify which of their evaluations during a CDCS period will be impact evaluations and which will be performance evaluations in their PMP. This type of design may also be feasible when USAID projects introduce an intervention on a phased basis. USAID IMPACT EVALUATION OF THE MAKHALIDWE ATHU PROJECT (ZAMBIA) GC-10F-0033M/AID-OAA-M-13-00010. LAPOP carried out an extensive mixed-methods, multi-year, four-nation impact evaluation of USAID’s program in violence prevention programs focused at the neighborhood level. The impact evaluation of MMT uses an experimental design whereby treatment and control schools were randomly selected. Supporting USAID Impact Evaluation in Honduras. In addition to prospective impact evaluations in which equivalent or close to equivalent groups are established prior to an intervention and followed to determine their post intervention status on outcome or effect measures of interest there are other types of impact evaluations what are useful under specific conditions, including designs that can be used in situations where all members of a population are exposed to a treatment, such as a policy reform, and which in some instance will be undertaken as retrospective impact evaluations. This Note defines impact evaluations, explains when they should be commissioned according to USAID policy and describes different designs for quasi-experimental and experimental impact evaluations. USAID Impact Evaluation of the Makhalidwe Athu Project (Zambia) Endline Report. By: Ruth Levine, Deputy Assistant Administrator, Bureau of Policy, Planning and Learning In a major address today, Dr. Shah will announce USAID’s new evaluation policy, evidence of the renewed emphasis the Agency is placing on evaluation, measuring and documenting program achievements and shortcomings, and generating data on what works to drive decision-making. US Agency for International Development (USAID). Given the work to be done before an Implementing Partner begins delivering the intervention the Impact Evaluation will examine, it is suggested that USAID issue a solicitation for an Impact evaluation team at the same time USAID issues the project-implementation solicitation. 2013 Report(link is external) 3. USAID How To Note Evaluation Statements of Work. TIPS 19: Impact Evaluations: Rigorous impact evaluations are useful for determining the effects of USAID programs on outcomes. Randomized assignment can be achieved in a number of ways including flipping a coin; computer generated assignments, or a lottery, where the number of participants is greater than the number that can draw tickets that assignment them to the intervention (or treatment) group. Any other method of assigning members of a population to treatment and comparison groups, no matter how elaborate or carefully developed, involves decisions by evaluators about the basis on which population members will be assigned to the treatment or comparison groups. This publication was produced at the request of the United States Agency for International Development. BETTER PROJECTS THROUGH IMPROVED When considering which type of evaluation design to choose, project design teams may find that using an Evaluation Design Decision Tree helps them work their way to the most appropriate option. For USAID Missions that are considering undertaking an Impact Evaluation to examine causal linkages in a trade facilitation or other type of trade capacity building project, it may be worth noting that in 2008-2009, the OECD commissioned a review of these types of projects to determine whether or not existing approaches for conducting impact evaluations (that include an examination of the counterfactual) … Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal InferenceThis updated volume, by Shadish, Cook and Campbell, remains the basic text on what we today call impact evaluation design. For projects where an impact evaluation will be undertaken, a parallel contractual or grant agreement needs to be established at the inception that includes sufficient resources for data collection and analysis. In conjunction with impact evaluations Microlinks has conducted, the project has published an Impact Evaluation Primer Series that includes Common Problems in Impact Assessment Research and six other volumes. USAID requires that impact evaluations be conducted, if feasible, of any new, untested approach that is anticipated to be expanded in scale or scope through U.S. … USAID/Aprender a Ler Impact Evaluation: Final Report i MONITORING, EVALUATION AND LEARNING, A toolkit developed and implemented by: USAID requires that the main types of evaluations to be undertaken during a CDCS period be specified in a PMP, noting that PMPs can and should be updated, as needed, to reflect additional evaluations a Mission schedules in response to facts that “trigger” supplem… This guide provides detailed information on the steps and challenges involved in successfully executing impact evaluations. To demonstrate the power of long-term evaluation, the team plans to conduct evaluations that assess the impacts of an aid intervention years after the project is completed. Last month, I met with those same four chiefs in Zambia to review our … USAID Evaluation Policy encourages Missions to undertake prospective impact evaluations that involve the identification of a comparison group or area, and the collection of baseline data, prior to the initiation of the project intervention. This results in an impact evaluation that is classified as having a quasi-experimental design. Some USAID Missions are already doing this and, as was done in solicitations related to a governance project in Nepal, they are sometimes cross-referencing these solicitations and making both the Implementing Partner and the Impact Evaluation team responsible for (a) the assignment of target population units to treatment and comparison groups and (b) the collection of baseline and endline data on key outcome measures clear in both solicitations. This type of evaluation allows managers to test development hypotheses by comparing changes in one or more specific outcomes to changes that occur in the absence of the program. Make a general inquiry or suggest an improvement. The resulting treatment and non-treatment (or control) groups are deemed to be functionally equivalent, as all of the other characteristics of population members have been distributed across both groups. This type of impact evaluation can potentially be employed whenever an intervention is delivered to some but not all members of a population, i.e., some but not all firms engaged in exporting, or some but not all farms that grow a particular crop. For more information, please contact Paul Fekete. ADS 201 requires that each Mission and Washington OU must conduct an impact evaluation, if feasible, of any new, untested approach that is anticipated to be expanded in scale or scope through U.S. Government foreign assistance or other funding sources (i.e., a pilot intervention). Under unusual circumstances, when a separate arrangement is infeasible, implementing partners may subcontract an impact evaluation of a project subcomponent. With all of these methods, all members of a population (or all members of a representative sample of a large population) have an equal chance of ending up in the intervention (or treatment) group. (1) USAID's Ghana Strengthening Accountability Mechanisms (GSAM) project: An impact evaluation of USAID's GSAM project, which aims to increase accountability of local District Assemblies in Ghana, tested the effect of two distinct efforts to increase accountability and improve service delivery outcomes at the district level. Along this continuum, the preference in USAID's Evaluation Policy is clear: For impact evaluations, experimental methods generate the strongest evidence. MONITORING, EVALUATION AND LEARNING, A toolkit developed and implemented by: Office of Trade and Regulatory Reform Evaluation is the systematic collection and analysis of information about the characteristics and outcomes of strategies, projects, and activities conducted as a basis for judgments to improve effectiveness, and timed to inform decisions about current and future programming. Find out about career opportunities at USAID. It was prepared by . The impact evaluation employs a Difference-in … For this reason, USAID evaluation policy prefers a method for selecting a comparison group that is called randomized assignment, as this method for constructing groups that do and do not receive an intervention is more effective than any other when it comes to ensuring that groups are equivalent on a pre-intervention basis. Social Impact is a global development management consulting firm. Retrospective impact evaluations assess program impact after the program has been implemented, generating treatment and comparison groups ex-post. There are many design options for impact evaluations depending on a variety of factors (see USAID Technical Note and OECD Principles for Impact Evaluation for helpful decision trees for design). Qualitative Impact The Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP), is a global United States Agency for International Development (USAID) cooperative agreement to introduce and support high-impact health interventions in 25 priority countries with the ultimate goal of ending preventable child and maternal deaths (EPCMD) within a generation. In principle, the group or area that receives an intervention should be equivalent to the group or area that does not. In general, prospective impact evaluations are more likely to produce strong and credible evaluation results. This method helps USAID staff understand if short-term impacts are sustained, or if theorized long-term impacts are realized. The reports below summarize evaluation requirements and practices at USAID before and after the Evaluation Policy, major accomplishments during the first five years of implementation, and priority activities to support policy implementation moving forward. Impact evaluations are an important tool for learning, in a precise way, about the extent and intensity of project effects as well as about the degree to which those effects can be said to have been caused by a specific intervention. This toolkit’s page on the decision to undertake and impact evaluation is located in that section and may be worth reviewing as Mission’s prepare more detailed Project MEL plans. Randomized impact evaluation of Afghanistan's National Solidarity Programme (NSP) Hypotheses and Methodology Contract No. BETTER PROJECTS THROUGH IMPROVED The authors’ views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government. Bureau of Economic Growth, Education, and Environment This illustrates the type of intervention monitoring needed in Impact Evaluations where there is site to site variation in the way an intervention is delivered. These requirements link to USAID’s reference to the need for parallel contractual arrangements for impact evaluations in some situations, as illustrated in the diagram below. The impact evaluation is aimed at addressing both the Accountability and Learning objectives as laid out in the USAID Evaluation Policy, and will be used by USAID YYC staff in order to inform future programming in YYC in Kenya and beyond. The subject of a USAID evaluation may include any level of USAID programming, from a policy to a strategy to a project, individual award, activity, intervention, or even cross-cutting programmatic priority. USAID was among the donor organizations that were asked to review both the Statement of Work and the product of this research. senior evaluation specialist, usaid evaluation and survey services (ess), haiti Administration, or other discipline related to development assistance required. When USAID decides, during the design phase of a project, to undertake a prospective Impact Evaluation that will involve a comparison, a number of preparatory steps may need to be undertaken fairly quickly. PHOTO BY DAVID RINCK FOR SOCIAL IMPACT Prospective evaluations are developed at the same time as the program is being designed and are built into program implementation. USAID is conducting eight rigorous impact evaluations in Ethiopia, Guinea, Liberia, Tanzania, and Zambia to test development questions relevant to eliminating extreme poverty, empowering women, enhancing food security, improving natural resource management, improving climate change mitigation and adaptation, mitigating conflict, and promoting democratic governance … 2016 (Five-Year) Report 2. 1. Both experimental and quasi-experimental designs can produce credible impact evaluation findings, but there is a difference, and their classifications signal what that difference is. ENDLINE REPORT (FINAL) February 2018. 2016 (Five-Year) Report 2. USAID's Microlinks Project captures new learning in microenterprise development and disseminates it among practitioners. Other impact evaluation designs, are intended for use when populations that are known to be different (such as those living above and below a poverty line) are to be compared after the poorer group receives an intervention that is designed to improve their circumstances. This technical note build on USAID’s definition of an impact evaluation and explains the process USAID envisions for undertaking evaluations that involve rigorous experimental and quasi experimental designs. Evaluators term this the counterfactual. Filed Under: Technical Resources, Guidance, Evaluation ENDLINE IMPACT EVALUATION REPORT (FINAL) January 2016 This publication was produced at the request of the United States Agency for International Development. 2012 Report(link is external) This type of impact evaluation can potentially be employed whenever an intervention is delivered to some but not all members of a population, i.e., … USAID is updating the 2013 Technical Note on Impact Evaluations. Impact evaluations aren’t fair. Learn how you can get involved and lend a hand. USAID is committed to building the evidence base on what works through impact evaluations. Find out about career opportunities at USAID. The identification of a valid comparison group is critical for impact evaluations. Running Randomized Evaluations: A Practical Guide Alternative methods should be utilized only when random assignment strategies are infeasible. Whenever a prospective impact evaluation involving treatment and comparison groups is being considered, it is wise to undertake a power analysis to ensure that the number of units (people, locations) available for assignment to these groups is adequate to detect important differences between them. For more information, please contact Paul Fekete. While impact evaluations require a lot of work from a variety of stakeholders, the payoff in terms of improved programming can start at the baseline. Funded by: USAID Country: Honduras Date Range: 2016 - 2021 Project Lead: Pulte Institute. It was prepared independently by NORC at the University of Chicago, under a subcontract with Mendez England & Associates. Learn how you can get involved and lend a hand. To assess the effectiveness of USAID’s community-based crime and violence prevention programs in Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama, Vanderbilt University’s Latin American Public Opinion Project launched a three-year impact evaluation.. While many of the steps listed in the Impact Evaluation Process above parallel steps taken in conducting Performance Evaluations, several of these steps warrant special attention when an Impact Evaluation is being planned. These key features, which affect decisions about the extent of intervention monitoring and study groups that will be needed, and thus evaluation cost, include, but are not necessarily limited to: These Impact Evaluation features are discussed in greater detail in a short briefing paper entitled Key Features of Impact Evaluations that Warrant Consideration at the Planning Stage. The timeline for the start-up of a prospective Impact Evaluation is driven by the requirement, in most such evaluations, for the comparison group to be selected, and baseline data on both the project’s target (treatment) group and the comparison group to be collected before delivery of the intervention that is to be evaluated begins. Use of Randomization in the Evaluation of Development Effectiveness, Impact Evaluations and Development Nonie Guidance on Impact Evaluation, Handbook on Impact Evaluation: Quantitative Methods and Practices (World Bank). USAID Contract AID–486–I–14-00001 (IDIQ); AID–383–TO–17–00003 (Task Order) DISCLAIMER The authors’ views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government. Bureau of Economic Growth, Education, and Environment For USAID Missions that are considering undertaking an Impact Evaluation to examine causal linkages in a trade facilitation or other type of trade capacity building project, it may be worth noting that in 2008-2009, the OECD commissioned a review of these types of projects to determine whether or not existing approaches for conducting impact evaluations (that include an examination of the counterfactual) were adequate for trade projects or whether new tools were needed. NORC was responsible for designing and conducting the impact evaluation for this project. Knowledge and experience in performance and impact evaluation designs, methodologies and practical applications, including baseline data collection methodologies required. Pilot interventions should be identified during project or activity design, and the impact evaluation should be integrated into the design of the project or activity. The more certain we are that groups are equivalent at the start, the more confident we can be in claiming that any post-intervention difference is due to the project being evaluated. Make a general inquiry or suggest an improvement. Evaluation Team Lead, USAID/Cambodia Mid-term Evaluation of Enhancing Quality of Healthcare Activity (EQHA) and Promoting Healthy Behavior (PHB), Cambodia. In the figure below, Steps 3-12 above are displayed on a timeline that suggests how the timing of these steps can be linked to the timing of steps in a project implementation process. U.S. Agency for International Development, Randomized impact evaluation of Afghanistan's National Solidarity Programme (NSP) Hypotheses and Methodology, What are the Steps in Implementing an Impact Assessment, Project Evaluation Plan Summary Template >>, Confirm the Evaluability of the Intervention, Identify the Target Population, if not already determined, Prepare an Impact Evaluation Statement of Work (SOW), including Anticipated Method by Which Population Units will be Assigned to Groups, Identify and Engage an Impact Evaluation Team, Finalize Decisions about Method by Which Population Units will be Assigned to Groups (with the Impact Evaluation Team), Prepare a Detailed Evaluation Design and Data Collection/Analysis Plan (Impact Evaluation Team), Gather Baseline Data, on target population or a sample thereof (Impact Evaluation Team, potentially in collaboration with USAID’s Implementing Partner), Implement the Method for Assigning Population Units to Treatment and Comparison Groups (Impact Evaluation Team), Deliver the Intervention (USAID’s Implementing Partner), Monitor Intervention Delivery and Treatment/Comparison Group Issues (Impact Evaluation Team), Gather Endline Data on Groups (Impact Evaluation Team, potentially in collaboration with USAID’s Implementing Partner), Act on Evaluation Findings to Enhance USAID and Partner Development Effectiveness. Impact evaluations can be divided into two categories: prospective and retrospective. 1. Evaluations at USAID include impact evaluations and performance evaluations. 2013 Report(link is external) 3. "Managing Impact Evaluations" (Part II) of Impact Evaluations and Development. The school lunch, supported by USAID, was a high […] NORC at the University of Chicago. Impact Evaluation of USAID's Crime and Violence Prevention Approach in Central America. Randomized assignment is a method for creating groups that do and do not receive a project intervention. Decisions about the specific data collection and analysis methods to be applied to address performance evaluations questions are an important step in the planning of every performance and impact evaluation, but the need not be made prematurely. Office of Trade and Regulatory Reform The USAID Water Team, through its Water Communications and Knowledge Management project (Water CKM), conducted a series of six independent ex-post evaluations to better understand the long-term impact and sustainability of its WASH-related interventions. The reports below summarize evaluation requirements and practices at USAID before and after the Evaluation Policy, major accomplishments during the first five years of implementation, and priority activities to support policy implementation moving forward. Additional guidance on planning and conducting Impact Evaluations is available in USAID’s TIPS on Rigorous Impact Evaluation, in the World Bank volume, Impact Evaluation in Practice, and on the websites of a number of organizations that conduct and provide guidance material on Impact Evaluations, including the J-PAL, IPA, 3ie, NONIE and DIME, which are described on the kit’s page on Locating Evaluations and listed under “useful links” this page. 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