Small amounts of benzene can be formed from benzoic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid and transition metal ions like copper and iron 38). This unpublished study showed a LD50 for males of 2,742 mg benzoic acid/kg body weight and for females of 2,565 mg benzoic acid/kg body weight. Summary record of the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health. To remove phthalic acid, whose presence is not allowed for food uses, treatment with amines and rinsing is required. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), 2012. SCCNFP/0532/01 final. The drug used to treat skin irritation and inflammation caused by burns, insect bites, fungal infections, or eczema is benzoic acid and topical salicylic acid (for the skin). BfR Expert Opinion No 013/2006, 1 December 2005. It is a crystalline organic compound. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2008.660. The European Food Safety Authority Panel noted that the formation of benzene in beverages containing benzoic acid or its salts as preservatives is linked to certain formulations, such as ascorbic acid in the presence of metallic ions and also to conditions of storage. WHO Food Additives Series 37. WHO, Geneva. Non-food applications for benzoic acid's antibacterial function are found in cosmetics. The Scientific Committee on Food established a group acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0–5 mg/kg body weight per day for benzoic acid and its salts, also including benzyl alcohol and related benzyl derivatives used as flavorings 5). From the aforementioned studies, the European Food Safety Authority Panel derived an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 5 mg/kg body weight per day (expressed as benzoic acid) using an uncertainty factor of 100. It helps in the prevention of bacterial infection. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2994. Peroxides are reaction intermediates. Benzoic Acid and Derivatives, in ‘Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of industrial Chemistry’ pp 329-342, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. It is used as a medicine and in the manufacture of medicines. No information was available regarding the manufacture of calcium benzoate; the European Food Safety Authority Panel assumed that it is manufactured similarly, by reaction of benzoic acid with calcium hydroxide, or other calcium salt. Opinion on benzoic acid and its salts. The Panel considered that the acceptable daily intake (ADI) cannot be derived from a prenatal developmental toxicity study with benzoic acid performed by gavage. However it was considered that further monitoring would be useful although no further formal action was considered necessary by the Commission at this time”. Proposal for harmonised classification and labelling. Its salts are used as a food preservative and it is an important precursor for the synthesis of many other organic substances. Sodium benzoate is produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium hydroxide 14). Potassium benzoate is obtained in high yield by reacting an aromatic hydrocarbon solution of benzoic acid, such as that which is obtained from the toluene oxidation process, with potassium hydroxide preferably in concentrated aqueous solution, thereby precipitating solid potassium benzoate 15). Benzoic Acid is a colorless crystalline solid with the chemical formula C 7 H 6 O 2. Along with other acne-fighting additives, some products contain sulphur, such as resorcinol. Biotechnol. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill. Benzoic acid preservative prevents or delays Considering the present toxicological database the European Food Safety Authority Panel identified a NOAEL of 500 mg/kg body weight per day and applying an uncertainty factor of 100, the European Food Safety Authority Panel derived a group ADI of 5 mg/kg body weight per day, expressed as benzoic acid, for benzoic acid (E 210), sodium benzoate (E 211), potassium benzoate (E 212) and calcium benzoate (E 213). Held in Brussels on 14 December 2007. JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives), 2001. 2005;43:329–334. Benzene, p. 322. CEC, Luxembourg, 1996, 33-39. Ortho-benzoylbenzoic Acid 14. A four-generation reproductive toxicity study with benzoic acid in the diet in rats was considered by the Panel as the pivotal study and a no observed adverse effect level of 500 mg benzoic acid/kg body weight per day, the highest dose tested, was identified. The chemical reaction is catalysed by metal ions, which are present at low concentrations in drinking water. McNeal TP, Nyman PJ, Diachenko GW and Hollifield HC, 1993. 2.2 Identified uses Benzoic acid is used as bactericide, viricide and fungicide. It is used in the manufacture of dyes called aniline blue. The pressure of the liquid discharged from the reactor is reduced to atmospheric, and unreacted toluene is recovered. WHO Technical Report Series, No. The earliest mention of benzoic acid appears from the 16th century. Opinion on benzoic acid and sodium benzoate. One of the components of toothpaste, mouthwash, and face wash creams is C 6 H 5. The results of the available short-term and subchronic studies on benzoic acid and sodium benzoate indicated that the toxicity of benzoic acid and its salts is low with no marked target organ toxicity. Benzoic acid and a wide range of derivatives and related benzenic compounds, such as salts, alkyl esters, parabens, benzyl Benzoic acid have previously been evaluated by the EU Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in 1994 3) and 2002 4). Appreciable amounts have been found in most berries (around 0. The developmental toxicity studies in rats with sodium benzoate in the diet, showed NOAELs of 500 mg/kg bw per day (the highest dose tested) and 1310 mg/kg body weight per day, respectively, comparable to or higher than the NOAEL of 500 mg/kg bw per day in the dietary multigeneration reproductive toxicity in rats with benzoic acid. Benzoic acid E210 is used as a food preservative that inhibits the growth of mold, yeast, and some bacteria. The body is aided by salicylic acid to shed rough or dead skin cells. EC (European Commission), 2007b. Consequently, the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of this salt will be similar to that of the sodium or potassium salts, despite differences in water solubility. SCCP (Scientific Committee on Consumer Products), 2005. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41, 693–695. An optical test strip for the detection of benzoic acid in food. And the maximum concentrations reported for benzoic acid added to food for preservation purposes were in the range of 2,000 mg/kg of food 18). In the oxidation reaction, several by-products are formed: benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate. To assess the dietary exposure to benzoic acid-benzoates (E 210–213) from their use as a food additive, the exposure was calculated based on (1) maximum permitted levels set out in the EU legislation (defined as the regulatory maximum level exposure assessment scenario) and (2) the reported use levels and analytical data (defined as the refined exposure assessment scenario). It is used in various ways, like manufacturing of insect repellents, below are some uses of benzoic acid in our life. Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food, Thirty-Fifth Series. For food and pharmaceutical uses, benzoic acid is upgraded by further processing. Unii-1n20y812xw 31. In 2006, the European Commission and Member States had become aware of the potential formation of benzene under certain conditions in soft drinks from the reaction of benzoic acid and other ingredients. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Studies on benzene formation in beverages. This formalin is used as a disinfectant in industries, preservative in some food products, funeral home etc. Biphenyl and methyl biphenyls are formed in smaller amounts. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS): Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate. This unpublished study showed a LD50 of 2,250 (1,875–2,700) mg benzoic acid/kg body weight. (Chang P and Ku K, 1993. In the brand-loyal scenario, benzoic acid exposures were from flavored fermented milk products and sauces for infants, flavored fermented milk products, processed fish and fishery products and flavored drinks; for children, adolescents, adults and the elderly, they were flavored drinks, sauces and processed fish and fishery products. Lancet, 370, 1560-1567. Expressed on 24 February 1994. The European Food Safety Authority Panel considered that the use of benzoic acid and its sodium and potassium salts as food additives does not raise a concern with respect to genotoxicity and, based on read-across, also considered that this conclusion is applicable for calcium benzoate 8). Benzoate is conjugated to glycine to form hippuric acid which is excreted in the urine. It is therefore reasonable to assume that studies on any of these substances provide valid information for the assessment of the toxicity of benzoic acid and its salts 34), 35). Dietary exposure through this latter scenario was assessed using two sets of concentration data: reported use levels and analytical data not exceeding the maximum permitted levels for food categories for which direct addition of benzoic acid-benzoates is authorized; and reported use levels and analytical data not exceeding the maximum permitted levels for food categories for which direct addition of benzoic acid-benzoates is authorized and analytical data for food categories which may contain benzoic acid benzoates due to carry-over and for which data were available. Benzoic acid is a common ingredient in many common household items. It is excreted as hippuric acid after conjugation with glycine in the liver. In 1974, JECFA 6) established a group acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0–5 mg/kg body weight for benzoic acid and its salts, expressed as benzoic acid, which was reconfirmed at its most recent evaluation in 1996 7). The Panel concluded that from the use of benzoic acid-benzoates as food additives from direct addition to food, the group ADI was exceeded in the brand-loyal scenario for toddlers and children consuming on a regular basis flavored drinks. This study showed no effect on growth, fertility, lactation or survival, and provided a NOAEL, for both the parental animals and the offspring, of 500 mg benzoic acid/kg body weight per day, the highest dose tested. In the non-brand-loyal scenario, the main contributing food categories were flavored drinks and sauces for all population groups. 1,710 uses benzoic acid products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which preservatives accounts for 3%, food additives accounts for 2%, and acidity regulators accounts for 1%. It was first prepared from coal tar. 11. Benzoic acid, its salts and esters are used as preservatives (up to 0.5 %, calculated as acid) and currently as disinfectants (up to 2.5 %, calculated as acid) in cosmetic products. JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives), 1974b. Benzoic Acid is used for Fungal infections of skin and other conditions. No studies appear to have been conducted on calcium benzoate, but the European Food Safety Authority Panel considered that calcium benzoate also dissociates into its constituents calcium and benzoate ions in the small intestine. When formaldehyde is dissolved in water, it is called formalin. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit [Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety], 5, 443–452. Held in Brussels on 20 July 2007. Benzoic acid (C7H6O2) was first described in the 16th century. google_ad_client: "ca-pub-9759235379140764", 23) study that has concluded that exposure to two mixtures of four synthetic colors plus sodium benzoate, as a preservative, in the  diet resulted in increased hyperactivity in 3-year-old and 8- to 9-year-old children in the general population. Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate are also included in the European Union Register of feed additives 20). Chemical Agents and related Occupations. BAuA (Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), 2011. Though benzoic acid is used in cosmetics, dyes, plastics and insect repellents, it is most commonly included in food products as a preservative. 1–48. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4353. WHO Technical Report Series, 868, 41-43. The European Food Safety Authority Panel noted that benzoic acid and its salts may enhance hypersensitivity and/or cause skin reactions in sensitive people. Maki T and Takeda K, 2000. In its 1996 evaluation, JECFA 36) presented the results of acute oral toxicity studies in rats, rabbits and dogs, showing LD50 (lethal dose 50, where 50% of test subjects die) values for benzoic acid or sodium benzoate ranging from 2,000 to 2,700 mg/kg body weight. Survey of benzene in foods by using headspace concentration techniques and capillary gas chromatography. Fourth Edition. Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate have also been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers 29) and the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products 30). Based on read-across, the European Food Safety Authority Panel considered that this conclusion is also applicable for calcium benzoate 22). It is commonly used as PH adjuster and also controls the growth of microbes as a preservative. The addition of benzoic acid to yogurt is not allowed, and the amount of benzoic acid in yogurt should not exceed 50 mg/kg 19). Originally the oxidation reaction was carried out at 140 °C and ca. Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Conumers concerning benzoic acid and sodium benzoate. Journal of AOAC International, 76, 1213–1219. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 1, 385–393. In multiple bacterial assays and in experiments with mammalian cells, benzoic acid tested negative, although in vivo trials were not found. Benzoic acid as a biocide (a chemical substance that destroys any harmful organism) was evaluated by Germany 27) and is permitted for this use according to EU Commission Implementing Regulation 1035/2013 28). Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Gardner LK and Lawrence GD, 1993. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of benzoic acid as feed additive for pigs for fattening when used as acidity regulator and all animal species when used as a flavouring. 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